Solar Array Output

The amount of power a solar array generates is directly proportional to the solar resource available throughout the day. Two critical calculations can be performed to determine the system yield: Power output (instantaneous output)Power output = instantaneous solar radiation (kW/m²) x rated array power (kW) x system efficiency Energy output (output over time)Hourly energy output […]

Shading on Solar PV Array

If the solar array is shaded in any way, its power output will be reduced. If there is continuous shading at the same position on the solar modules, the modules can develop ‘hot spots’ that can damage them permanently. Incidental shading is not static, as it moves throughout the day and year, following the sun’s […]

Solar Array Positioning

A solar module will receive the most solar radiation and produce the greatest amount of power if it faces directly to the sun; however, the sun moves throughout the day and the year. Daily movement: Each day, the sun moves from the east, where it rises, to the west, where it sets. The compass position […]

Solar Water Pumping System Configurations

There are four main configurations for solar pumping systems. Note that the configurations and applications detailed below are not exhaustive; they are designed to give an overview of what’s available. You may wish to seek further information from somewhere else. Solar Alone This configuration is one of the most straightforward, commonly deployed, and cost-effective designs. […]

Irrigation Pumping – Lifting and Distributing Bulk Water

The cost of pumping bulk water using mains electricity or diesel has become a significant burden on agricultural productivity, with most irrigation farmers having to cover six-figure energy bills. While electricity is more efficient for pumping than diesel, high network charges and connection costs in rural areas have inhibited growth in the electrification of irrigation […]